学术上的“剽窃”或者“抄袭”究竟指何种行为?

2013年04月09日 | 来源: PassPaper | 分类: 学术观察

按照国外学术研究最重要的规范指导书之一《美国语文学会研究论文写作指南》(MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers,5th edition)的定义,“剽窃”(plagiarism)指的是一种欺骗形式,它被界定为“虚假声称拥有著作权(authorship):即取用他人思想之产品(taking the product of another person’s mind),将其作为自己的产品拿出来的错误行为。”……在你自己的文章中使用他人的思想见解或语言表述(another person’s ideas or expressions),而没有申明其来源的,就是剽窃。(第30页)

《指南》接着提到几类“剽窃形式”,其中包括在下列几种情况下对见解、资料、用语的来源出处“没有给予相应的承认”的行为:“复述他人行文或特别贴切的词语”、“变换措词使用他人的论点和论证”、“呈示他人的思路”等(见《指南》同页)。指导书还用大量例证对种种剽窃形式做出了极其严格的界定。

——以上定义引自《指南》第54篇:《北京大学英语系核查组关于黄宗英学术剽窃行为的评价报告》

剽窃的定义:
  • The concise Oxford dictionary (6th edition) (1976)
  • Plagiarise - Take and use another person's (thoughts,writings,inventions) as one's own.
  • The Cambridge international dictionary of English (1995)
  • Plagiarise - To use (another person's idea or part of their work) and pretend that it is your own.
  • The Oxford advanced learner's dictionary (5th edition) (1995)
  • Plagiarise - To take somebody else's ideas or words,and use them as if they were one's own.
  • Collins COBUILD English language dictionary (1987)
  • If you plagiarise someone else's ideas,or part of a piece of writing or music by someone else,you use it in your own work and pretend that you thought of it or created it.
  • Funk and Wagnalls' new standard dictionary (1921)
  • Plagiarism is the act of appropriating the ideas,writings,or inventions of another without due acknowledgement; specifically,the stealing of passages either for word or in substance,from the writings of another and publishing them as one's own.
  • Collin's pocket English dictionary (1987)
  • Plagiarism is the taking of ideas,writings,etc. from another and passing them off as one's own
  • University of Hertfordshire Policies and Regulations,17.7,5.2.
  • Plagiarism is the representation of another person's work as the student's own,either by extensive unacknowledged quotation,paraphrasing or direct copying.
  • MLA handbook for writers of research papers (1995)
  • To use another person's ideas or expressions in your writing without acknowledging the source is to plagiarise.